Lesson Plans for Secondary School Educators
Unit Six: Treebeard's Lament
personification (per-son-e-fi-kay-shen) The literary device of using a fictional character to embody an abstract idea. In Book Three, Treebeard personifies the forest, and the Entwives personify agriculture.
anthropomorphism (an-thre-pe-mor-fiz-em) The attribution of human characteristics to plants, animals, and objects. Tolkien's Ents are essentially anthropomorphized trees.
empathy (em-pe-thee) The ability to identify with another creature's feelings and difficulties. The Ents empathize so strongly with trees that they become "tree-ish," even as many trees in turn become "Entish."
tribute (trib-yoot) A payment made by a nation to an alien ruler as a sign of submission. When Aragorn and company first encounter the Rohirrim, Éomer denies the rumor that his people pay tribute to Sauron.
parley (par-lay) A talk between opposing military forces. During the battle of Helm's Deep, Aragorn conducts a parley with the orcs. After their victory, Gandalf and Théoden set off to parley with Saruman.
coomb (koom) A narrow valley enclosed on all but one side. Tolkien describes Helm's Deep as a coomb.
dingle (din-gell) A wooded valley. After Merry and Pippin befriend Treebeard, he bears them on his shoulder into a dingle.
Industrial Revolution (in-dus-tree-el rev-e-loo-shen) The social and economic changes in Great Britain, Europe, and the United States that began in the late eighteenth century and involved the widespread adoption of machine-driven methods of production.
modernism (mod-er-niz-em) The revolutionary ideas in art, literature, and thought that emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction against conventional forms and opinions.
sub-creation (sub-kree-a-shen) Tolkien's term for the construction of imaginary but convincing and self-consistent worlds, such as occurs when a poet composes an epic. For Tolkien, these "secondary worlds" reflect the primary creative act by which God brought the universe into being.
Unit Six Content
Comments for Teachers